The leaf of ivy has a well-developed epidermis at the sun side and a thick cuticle which provides protection against desiccation. The leaf has a multilayered palisade parenchyma; the number of layers depends on the availability of light. The stomata are mainly located at the shade side. Here they are clearly visible in closed state. Also the wall thickenings of the stomata are distinct. The cavity behind the stomata (substomatal chamber) is small.