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Stoma in an epidermis strip of a pine needle

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stomata (with guard cells)
3  epidermis cells
2  subsidiary cells

English name: Pine
Scientific name: Pinus sp.
Familia: Pinaceae
Classis: Coniferopsida
Phylum: Gymnospermae
Regnum: Plantae
The stomata of pine needles are sunken below the surface and the subsidiary cells have a ledge-like structure which obscures the view of the stomata. This construction provides extra protection against desiccation. Like in privet the subsidiary cells are co-involved in closing and opening the stomata.

last modified: 5 Jun 2014